Flora and Fauna

Medicinal Plants
  Arogyapacha plant

 

 

Medicinal Plants

Medicinal Plants constitute an important component of the plant resource spectrum of Kerala. Recent analysis shows that out of estimated 4600 flowering plants in Kerala, about 900 possess medicinal values. Of these, 540 species are reported to occur in forest ecosystems. Over 150 species of plants that are either indigenous or naturalized in Kerala are used in the Indian system of Medicine like Ayurveda and Sidha. The rural folk and tribal communities make use of about 2,000 species of lesser-known wild plants for various medicinal uses. About 60 to 65% of plants required for Ayurvedic medicine and almost 80% of plants used in Sidha medicine are found in the forests of Kerala.

The major medicinal plants obtained from the forests of Kerala are Asparagus racemosus, Solanum anguivi, Desmodium gangeticum, Cissus quadrangularis, Psuedartheria viscida, Strobilanthes ciliatus, Dysoxylum malabaricum, Piper longum, Aristolochia indica, Ceasalpinia bonduc, Tribulus terrestris, Sarcostemma acidum, Baliospermum montanum, Aristolochia bracteolata etc.

The table below gives further details:

MEDICINAL PLANTS IN KERALA

Botanical Name Local Name
Acacia catechu Karingali
Acorus calamus Vayambu
Adathoda beddomei Atalodakan
Aegle marmelos Koovalam
Alpinia galanga Kolinji
Anisochilus carnosus Karimthumba
Aphanamixis polystachya Chemmaram
Aristolochia indica Karalakam
Asparagus racemosus Sathavari
Biophytum spp. Mukkuti
Cassia fistula Kanikonna
Coscinium fenestratum Maramanjal
Crateva magna Neermathalam
Curcuma zedoaria Manjakoova
Cyperus rotundus Muthanga
Daemia extensa Veliparuthy
Desmodim gangeticum Orila
Emblica officinalis Nelli
Gloriosa superba Menthonni
Gmelina arborea Kumizhu
Hemidesmus indicus Naruneendi
Heracleum candolleanum Chittelam
Holoptelia integrifloia Aaval
Holostemma adakodien Adapathiyan
Hydrocotyle asiatica Kudangal
Ipomoea pestigridis Pulichuvadi
Kaemperia galanga Kacholam
Malaxis rheedei Jeevakam
Azadirachta indica Veppu
Moniera cuncifolia Neerbrahmi
Mukia scabra Karthoti
Neolamarkia cadamba Kadambu
Nervilia aragoana Orilathamara
Nilgirianthes ciliatus Karimkurinji
Oroxylum indicum Palakapayyani
Oscimum sanctum Tulasi
Phyllanthus amarus Keezhanelli
Piper longum Thippali
Pongamia pinnata Ungu
Pseudarthria viscida Moovila
Rauvolfia serpentina Sarpagandhi
Rubia cordifolia Manchatti
Ruta graveolens Sathappu, Arootha
Salacia fruticosa Ekanayakam
Salacia oblonga Ponkoranti
Saraca asoca Ashokam
Sida cordifolia Kurumthotti
Stereospermum colais Pathiri
Symplocos cochinchinensis Pachotti
Terminalia arjuna Neermaruthu
Terminalia chebula Kadukka
Tinospora cordifolia Chittamruthu
Trichosanthus cucumerina Kaipan padavalam
Tylophora indica Vallippala
Vetiveria zizanoides Ramacham
Vitex negundo Karinochi
Hemidesmus indicus Nannari

 

Arogyapacha plant

Only the indigenous people, the Kani tribe, knew of the anti-fatigue properties of the Arogyapacha plant (Trichopus zeylanicus ssp.travancoricus), which they ate during long treks in the hilly Western Ghats region. The Kani tribe is traditionally a nomadic community, who now lead a largely settled life in the forests of the Agasthyamalai hills of the Western Ghats in the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala. Tribal healers, known as Plathis, have knowledge on the medicinal properties of the flora and fauna of the region, and they passes this knowledge to the next generation orally.

In December 1987, a team of scientists undertook a botanical field survey into the forests of the Western Ghats of southern Kerala. Men from the local Kani tribe accompanied them. The leader, Dr. Pushpangadan, observed that the men ate some fruits which kept them energetic and agile; the team were later offered these fruits during arduous trekking and upon eating, experienced renewed energy and strength. Dr. Pushpangadan asked them about the source of the fruits, and after much persuasion and assurances that the information would not be misused, the Kanis finally showed him the fruits.

Preserving Local Knowledge

Convention on Biological Diversity aims to conserve and use biological diversity in a sustainable manner. It mandates that its signatories respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices of local or indigenous communities and encourage the equitable sharing of benefits.

One method that is being used to document the knowledge and skills of local communities related to biological resources is through Community Biodiversity Registers. The register process seeks to document the knowledge of conservation, as well as economic uses of biodiversity resources that rest with India's local communities. This is being developed by local communities in collaboration with high school and college students, and local NGOs. All information accumulated in the register can be used or shared only with the knowledge and consent of the local community. The community, when consenting to the access, can charge fees for access to the register and collection of biological resources. Decisions on how to disburse the funds are to be made through village community meetings. There is concern about the Biodiversity Registers in case the process has the effect of placing knowledge hitherto regarded as secret by communities in the public domain, and that once this is done it would open the way for corporate and research interests to freely access and use the local knowledge about the biodiversity resources

Harvesting

The license to produce jeevani was granted to Arya Vaidya Pharmacy. A regular supply of the leaves of the plant was required. Scientific studies revealed that the medicinal properties of the plant are best manifested in plants growing in the natural habitat.

TBGRI suggested that as only leaves of the plant are needed, several harvests could be made from the perennial plant without actually destroying it. Therefore, in October 1997, a proposal to the Forest Department and Tribal Welfare Department stated that it was willing to pay Kanis seed money for cultivation of the plant, and would subsequently buy leaves harvested from these plants. This was not only a sustainable use of the natural resource, but the sale of leaves would also give the Kanis an extra source of income. TBGRI also assured the state department that no private parties would be involved in cultivation of the plant.

To facilitate this arrangement a pilot scheme for cultivation of the plant was carried out with support from the Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP) in areas surrounding the reserved forests from 1994 to 1996. Under this programme fifty families were given around Rs. 2000 ($40) each for cultivating the plant. TBGRI was to buy five tonnes of these leaves per month from the families and supply them to AVP for production of Jeevani. Through this scheme, roughly half the Kanis secured employment and were trained by TBGRI on various aspects of cultivation and harvesting of Arogyapacha to ensure that the plants are not over-harvested.

Lessons Learned

This experience has provided insight at multiple levels and is recognised as a world first in - how to commercialise use of natural resources in a sustainable manner; developing a valuable product and sharing benefits in a way that rewards the knowledge of indigenous people. It has been observed that:

  • The increase in demand could have led to excessive extraction of the biological resources, if the following measures were not taken:
    • Raising awareness among all stakeholders
    • Supporting and creating local institutions for sustainable extraction
    • Legitimising the property rights of communities over the use of biological resources and associated knowledge where were negotiated and defined at the local level.
  • The effective protection of intellectual property is a necessary condition for generation benefits, but it is not a sufficient condition for benefit sharing. Several additional measures are needed to supplement the role of intellectual property rights in benefit sharing over biological resources and traditional knowledge.
Ultimately, the initiative has empowered the Kanis to protect, preserve and maintain their knowledge, and the sustainable use of biological resources had resulted in benefiting the local and global community
 

COMMON INDIAN FISHES

The subcontinent of India has a large number of rivers besides lakes, backwaters, lagoons and swamps. The two largest rivers, the Ganges and the Indus, originating from the Himalayan mountain ranges flow down through the entire length and breadth of Northern India and finally enter their respective estuaries to reach the sea. Peninsular India also has large rivers like the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri besides innumerable smaller ones. The total length of rivers in India is estimated at about 27,360 km. All these rivers, their tributaries, canals and irrigation channels have roughly an area of 1,12,650 sq. km. and afford a wide variety of habitats to fishes.

India is bordered on the east by the Bay of Bengal and on the west by the Arabian Sea, the two merging on the southernmost tip of the peninsula with the Indian Ocean. India, thus, has a coastline of about 4,700 km. The continental shelf bordering the Indian coast has a total area of about 2,59,000 sq km. This vast area is the home of infinite varieties of marine fishes. Beyond the continental shelf lie the oceanic waters, home of some of the large sharks and rays, as well as bony fishes like the tunas, sail fishes and sword fishes. Thus, the total area of freshwater and marine resources of India exceeds several million square kilometers but at present not more than one million sq km are being exploited.The fishes are classified broadly into ...

  • Elasmobranchs

  • Teleosts.

ELASMOBRANCH FISHES

As already explained, sharks and rays constitute the cartilaginous group, whose members are mainly denizens of the seas and oceans, except a few interesting estuarine and migratory species.

Super order Pleurotrotremata Or Sharks

On account of their large size and predacious habits, sharks are more prominent and better known. The present-day sharks are classified under three major groups or orders, viz., (i) Notidanid or Hexanchid sharks; (ii) Galeoid or Lamna-like sharks; and (iii) Squaloid sharks. All are represented in the Indian seas.

Notidanid or Hexanchid sharks are rare and are considered the most primitive. Gill-slits may be 6 or 7 pairs. The dorsal fin single. The only member found in India is Heptranchias platycephalus. This shark has an elongate body, with a round or obtuse snout. Eyes without nictitating membrane. Spiracles small. Seven pairs of gill-clefts.

Galeoid sharks (Lamniformes) are the largest group and include all the well known sharks of the world. Gill-clefts 5; 2 dorsal fins; one anal fin; no spine. The members of this suborder fall under six distinct families, viz., Odontaspidae, Lamnidae, Orectolobidae, Scyliorhinidae, Carcharhinidae, Sphyrinidae.

Family : Odontaspidae (Sand Sharks)

Carcharias tricuspidatus, known as Wagir in Bombay, is the only member of this family recorded in India. Found off Bombay and Sind coasts. Average size 3.5 m but may attain 6-metre length. Ferocious and dangerous to man and other fishes.

Family: Lamnidae (Mackerel Sharks)

Popularly known as mackerel sharks, on account of the perfection and similarity of body-shape to the teleost fish, mackerel. Latona is a well-known member. Carchardon is another example and is popularly called man-eater as it is known to attack human beings. Both these sharks do not occur in the Indian seas, however, Isurus (commonly called Porbeagles) and Alopias (Thresher sharks) are the only Lamnid sharks recorded in India.

Family Orectolobidae is a large and varied one. Oreclolobus, the carpet-shark, is a noted member. In India the following genera are recorded. Chiloscyllium, Nebrius, Stegostoma, and Rhincodon, the last being the, most well-known.

Rhincodon typus Smith or whale shark is known as Karanj or Bahiri in Bombay. As the common name indicates, this shark resembles whales in size. In fact, Rhincodon is the largest fish known in the world today, measuring about 15.2 metres. The Indian species, however, ranges from 4 to 9 metres. They are surface swimmers and feed on plankton. They are very rich in liver oil and are economically very important. Related to this is a small whale shark, 2-9 metres long, Nebrius ferrugineum, common in Bombay where it is known as Sunera. It is also rich in liver oil. Another Indian member is Stegostoma varium commonly called Tiger shark, because of its vivid stripes and markings like those of a tiger. It grows to 5.5 m in length and is valued for its flesh and oil. Common at Madras and Trivandrum.

Family Scyliorhinidae is a large family of I 1 or 12 genera. The most important commercially is Carcharhinus or Blue sharks. They are elegant, blue-coloured sharks. About 12 species are found in the Indian seas. They are more abundant on the Malabar coast.

Carcharhinus gangeticus is found in the Bay of Bengal and in all the large rivers. Those living in the Ganges ascend upstream and are among the few sharks adapted to freshwater. All species of Carcharhinus are valuable sources of liver oil and are caught in plenty for the extraction of oil. Another important example is Scoliodon, popularly known as dog-sharks or dog-fishes. Theyare comparatively small, ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 m long. There are two or three species which are esteemed as food as well as sources of oil. On account of its small size, 27 coliodon is the most popular shark for type-study in biology in colleges throughout India. Reference may also be made to caleocerdo, another member of this family, found along both the Malabar and the Coromandel Coasts. They are medium-size fishes 3.6 to 4.2 m long and yield large quantities of oil.

Family: Sphyrinidae (Hammer-headed sharks)

Hammer-headed sharks are notable exhibits in large marine aquaria on account of their bizarre appearance. The head of this shark is flattened in front and expanded sideways, thus resembling a hammer. The eye is located at the tip of each lateral extension of the head. These sharks are ferocious and lash at their prey with their heads. They are caught for their oil, although the yield is comparatively low. Four species have been recorded in the Indian seas, the most important being Sphyrna blochii (synonymous with Zygaena blochii, Day) found in the Bay of Bengal and off the Bombay coast.

The third major group of sharks are the Squaloids composed of three families. Family Squalidae consists of small-sized sharks resembling the dog-fishes. One of the distinguishing features is the absence of the anal fin. Either of the dorsal fins is preceded by a spine and the group is, therefore, commonly referred to as spiny dog-fishes. There is a tendency for the snout to become spatulate and the spiracles larger. The two well-known members are Centrophorus and Centroscyllium; both are abundant in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.The other two families, Squatinidae and Pristiophoriclae, are not found in India.

Superorder Hypotremata Or Batoidei (Rays)

Rays which constitute the second major group of Elasmo-branchs are distinguished from sharks by a dorso-ventrally flattened body with five gill-openings, which are situated on the under surface of the body. Indian seas are rich in them. Typical rays are classified under the order Batea [Rajiformes), while those with electric organs are referred to under Narcohatea (Torpedeniformes). The well-known members of Batea are described below.

Family: Pristidae (Saw fishes)

These fishes are characterised by the possession of an elongated, toothed, saw-like rostrum, with which it attacks other fishes. There are two species in India, Pristis cuspidatus and Pristis microdon; both are invaluable for liver oil of high vitamin value. Pristis should not be confused with the saw-shark Pristiophorus, which has a toothed rostrum. The shark can be distinguished by its lateral gill-openings. Both are dangerous to man.

Family: Pdtinobatidae (Guitai Fishes)

These are rays with a depressed body, a tapering snout and an elongated caudal region, thus resembling the musical instrument, the guitar. There are three genera in India. Rhynchobatux, the larger of the two, is about 2.5 m long, with liver weighing about 4 kilograms and is caught for the extraction of liver oil. Its flesh is also useful as food, either in the fresh or dried state. The other genera are Rhina and Rhinobatos which are smaller types and used mainly as food.

Family: Dasyatidae

These are the famous rays which can inflict wounds on their victims by means of the sting on the tail. The sting is a modified spine, provided with poison glands and may be 1 or 2 in number. There are several genera and species in the Indian seas of which Dasyatis is the best known.

The other genera of sting-rays are Gymnur, Urogymnus and Taeniura. Sting-rays though smaller in size are valuable in commercial fisheries. Their flesh is edible and liver yields a fair amount of oil.

Family: Rhinopteride (Cow Rays)

These are rays in which the head is divided into two rounded lobes by a deep notch and resembles Somewhat a cow's head. The disc-like body is quadrangular. The tail is long and whip-like. These fishes are about a metre long. They are considered economically not profitable as the oil content is low. There are four species of Rhinoptera in India.

Family: Myliobatidae (Eagle Rays)

In these fishes, the pectoral fins resemble the outspread wings of an eagle and hence the popular name. Tail is whip-like and bears a spine. Two species are commonly found in India. Aetomylaeus nichofii (Syn. Myliobatis niehofii, Day) occurs in the mouth of the Ganges and Chilka Lake and also along the east and west coasts. . Etobatis narinari is the spotted Eagle Ray and is the only species found in the Indian seas.

There are several well-known species of the Narcobatea or Torpediniformes in India, of which a few may be mentioned here.

Torpedo marmorata is the common or Marbled Electric Ray measuring about 30-50 cm across the body, The electric organs are two large bodies in the gill region.

Arcine brunnea (Annandale) is the popular Electric Ray of the coastal waters from Bombay to Hooghly.

Narke dipterygia Schn. is found on the Coromandel coast and also in estuaries of West Bengal and Orissa.

TELEOST FISHES

The common bony fishes of India will be dealt with under two headings.

  • Fresh-water

  • Marine

Fresh-water

The carps and catfishes of the order Cypriniformes or Os tario-physi constitute about 64% of the fresh-water fishes of India and are very important food fishes. The carps and their allies form the division Cyprini, consisting of about 200 genera.

Family: Rhinopteride (Cow Rays)

These are rays in which the head is divided into two rounded lobes by a deep notch and resembles somewhat a cow's head. The disc-like body is quadrangular. The tail is long and whip-like. These fishes are about a metre long. They are considered economically not profitable as the oil content is low. There are four species of Rhinoptera in India.

Family : Myliobatidae (Eagle rays)

In these fishes, the pectoral fins resemble the outspread wings of an eagle and hence the popular name. Tail is whip-like and bears a spine. Two species are commonly found in India. Aetomylaeus nichofii (Syn. Myliobatis niehofii, Day) occurs in the mouth of the Ganges and Chilka Lake and also along the east and west coasts. Aetobatis narinari is the spotted Eagle Ray and is the only species found in the Indian seas.

There are several well-known species of the Narcobatea or Torpediniformes in India, of which a few may be mentioned here.

Torpedo marmorata is the common or Marbled Electric Ray measuring about 30-50 cm across the body, The electric organs are two large bodies in the gill region. Arcine brunnea (Annandale) is the popular Electric Ray of the coastal waters from Bombay to Hooghly.

Narke dipterygia Schn. is found on the Coromandel coast and also in estuaries of West Bengal and Orissa.

 

Reptiles

The reptiles include crocodiles, 'turtles, lizards and snakes, distributed in a variety of habitats. About 449 species of reptiles are reported from India of which 159 species occur in Kerala, which include two species of crocodiles (one belived to be extinct), 12 species of turtles, 48 species of lizards and 97 species of snakes. The destruction of forest habitats has already taken heavy toll on several populations of reptiles. The king cobra and the lesser snakes in the rain forest are under pressure from continued habitat destruction caused by man. The greatest drain on the populations of reptiles is due to, the increasing demand for their skin for commercial purposes. The skin trade has made the Indian crocodiles endangered and the demand for skin of snakes and lizards in international market continues to be a constant threat to the survival of reptiles such as the sand boa, python, rat snake, cobra, viper and the monitor lizard.

The reptilian fauna of India are largely dominated by Indo Chinese elements. The genera Salea and Ristella are endemic to Western Ghats. Primitive burrowing snakes of the family Uropeltidae are exclusive to Western Ghats and Sri Lanka.

The geckos Cnemaspis wynadensis and C. nairi, the lizard Otocryptis beddomii, the skink Mabuya clivicola, the snakes Melanophidium bilineatum, Rhinophis fergusonianus, R. travancoricus and Rhabdops olivaceus are so far known only from Kerala.

Among those found in Kerala, all the five marine turtles (Dermochelys coriacea, Eretmochelys imbricata, Chelonia sp., Caretta caretta, Lepidochelys olivacea), the mugger or marsh crocodile (Crocodylus palustris), the monitor lizard (Varanus bengalensis) and the Indian rock python (Python molurus) are considered endangered. The Cochin forest cane turtle (Geoemyda silvatica) and the Indian flapshelled turtle (Lissemys punctata) are considered vulnerable while the status of the Travancore tortoise (Indotestudo forstenii) is insufficiently known. The estuarine or salt-water crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) which once had a wide distribution in Kerala is now believed to be extinct in the state.

 

 
Insects and Butterflies

Three out of every four organisms described so far are insects. This makes them the most numerous, if not the most dominant group of organisms on earth. Forest is the home for a large variety of them. In fact, most insects found in Kerala may have originated in the forests in the remote past, when much of the present day agricultural and urban lands were under forest cover. Therefore, a strict categorisation into forest and non-forest insects is not meaningful although there are some groups of insects found exclusively in forests, like beetles of the family Passalidae which inhabit the wet decaying timber on the floor of evergreen forests.

The Indian insect fauna were estimated at 67,000 species in 1980 of which 16,000 constituting about one fourth, were recorded from forests. The Kerala Forest Research Institute has a collection of about 3000 insect species from different forest habitats of which 900 have been authentically identified.

It is estimated that the recorded insects will be at least 6,000. In addition, many species remain unrecorded, of which many may turn out to be new species; particularly those from the forests. In a recent study of the butterflies and moths of Silent Valley, based on limited sampling representing about 20 sq.km of the 90 sq.km national park, 95 species of butterflies and 318 species of moths were recorded, but more significantly, 87 of the species collected (17%) could not be identified in spite of reference to the International Institute of Entomology of the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, London.
 
Rare and Endangered Animals

According to one estimate, 285 species of Vertebrate are reported to be endemic to Western Ghats, which include 12 mammals, 16 birds, 89 reptiles, 87 amphibians, and 84 fresh water fishes. Among large mammals, no species is endemic to Kerala. However, birds such as White breasted laughing thrush, Wayanad laughing thrush, White bellied shortwing, Southern treepie, Rufous babbler are possible endemic birds which may slightly overlap state boundaries in the southern Western Ghats.

High diversity area like West Malaysia has only about 10 endemic snakes, whereas the South West India has about 55. Among reptiles, Cochin forest cane turtle and Travancore tortoise are endemic to evergreen forests of southern Western Ghats. Arboreal agamid genera Otocryptis and Salea and the rare endemic genus of burrowing snake, Xylophus and others of the family Uropeltidae have been accorded high conservation value.


The monotypic agamid genus Dravidogecko is reported from Anamalais only. Thirty species of lizards are reported endemic to Western Ghats which include Calotes rouxi, Cnemaspis sisparensis, C.wynadensis and Chalcides pentadactylus. Out of 57 endemic snakes in the Western Ghats four species viz., Boiga dightsni, Melanophidum bilineatum, Plectrurus aurenus and Rhinophis fergusonianus are endemic to Kerala and adjacent forests.

The southern Western Ghats have probably 40 species of endemic tree frogs. Among Amphibia, Bufonidae has five, Microhylidae one, Ranidae 14, Rhacophoridae four and Gymnophiona, the caecilian, five.

Of the endemic amphibian genera of the Western Ghats i.e., Nannobatrachus, Nyctibatrachus, Melahobatrachus and Uraeotyphlus, the notable species endemic to Kerala are Melanobatrachus indicus, Nannobatrachus anamallaiensis, Nyctibatrachus, Nyctibatrachus major, N. phygameus, Uraeotyphlus malabaricus and U. menoni. Among fish fauna, species like Lepidopygopsus typus, Hysilobarbus kurali , have been reported to be endemic to southern Western Ghats. In a recent survey of the stream fishes in the Kerala segment of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve 58 species with 25 species endemic to Western Ghats were reported from the streams in Wayanad.

Butterflies, unlike birds are restricted in distribution and about 61 species are shared endemics between Western Ghats and Sri Lanka.
 
Wild Animals in Kerala


Sl. No.

Scientific Name

English Name

1.

Macaca radiata

Bonnet Macaque

2.

Macaca silenus

Lion-Tailed Macaqure

3.

Trachypithecus johnii

Nilgiri Langur

4.

Loris tardigradus

Slender Loris

5.

Panthera tigris

Tiger

6.

Panthera pardus

Panther, Leopard

7.

Prionailurus bengalensis

Leopard Cat

8.

Prionailurus rubiginosus

Rusty Spotted Cat

9.

Felis chaur

Jungle Cat

10.

Viverra megaspila civettina

Malabar Civet

11.

Viverricula indica

Small Indian Civet

12.

Herpestes edwardsii

Common Mongoose

13.

Herpestes vitticolis

Stripe Necked Mongoose

14.

Herpestes smithii

Ruddy Mongoose

15.

Hyaena hyaena

Striped Hyaena

16.

Canis aureus

Jackal

17.

Vulpus bengalensis

Indian Fox

18.

Cuon alpinus

Indian Wild Dog

19.

Melursus ursinus

Sloth Bear

20.

Lutra lutra

Common Otter

21.

Martes gwatkinsi

Nilgiri Marten

22.

Anathana ellioti

Indian Tree Shrew

23.

Petaurista petaurista

Flying Squirrel

24.

Ratufa indica

Malabar Giant Squirrel

25.

Funambulus palmarum

Three Striped Squirrel

26.

Hystrix indica

Indian Porcupine

27.

Elephas maximus

Indian Elephant

28.

Bos gaurus

Indian Bison

29.

Cervus unicolor

Sambar

30.

Muntiacus muntjak

Barking Deer

31.

Axis axis

Spotted Deer

32.

Tragulus meminna

Mouse Deer

33.

Sus scrofa

Indian Wild B

 

Wild life census 1993

Name of Animal

Nos

Lion-Tailed Macaque

960

Bonnet Macaque

4,860

Nilgiri Langur

2,987

Hunuman Langur

175

Elephant

4,286

Gaur

4,840

Sambar

10,665

Spotted Deer

6,259

Barking Deer

1,025

Mouse Deer

550

Nilgiri Tahr

1,075

Wild Boar

40,963

Malabar Giant Squirrel

1,384

Gizzled Giant Squirrel

75

Porcupine

695

Small Indian Civet

425

Common Palm Civet

380

Sloth Bear

420

Tiger

76

Panther/Leopard

16

Wild Dog

358

 
Migratory Birds in Kerala



Zoological Name Common Name Malayalam Time Locality
Anas crecca crecca Common Teal Yeranda WV Vembanad lake
Anas Querquedula Blue winged Teal Vari yeranda WV "
Aythya nyroca White-eyed pochard Yeranda WV "
Accipiter nisus Asiatic sparrow-Hawk Praapidiyan WV
Buteo buteo Buzzard Parundu WV Ponmudi
Circus macrourus Pale Harrier Medutappi WV Peerumedu
Circus pygargus Montegu's Harrier Medutappi WV Hilly areas
C. melanoleucos Pied Harrier Medutappi WV 3000-4000 ft
C. aeruginosus Marsh Harrier Karitappi WV coastal backwaters
Pandion halietus Osprey Taalipparandu WV -do-
Falco peregrinus Peregrine falcon Kaayal pullu WV Kollam, Alappuzha
Falco tinnunculus European kestrel Cherupullu WV Coastal backwaters
Haematopus osralegus Oyster catcher Kakka patta WV Seacoast
Pluvialis dominica Eastern golden plover Manal-kozhi WV Vaikam
Charadrius leschenaultii Large sand plover -do- WV Neendakara
C. dubius Little ringed plover Motherakozhy WV 900m Periyar lake
C. alexandrinus Kentish plover Manal kozhi WV Coast and backwaters
C. mongolus Lesser sand plover " WV 1850m high range
Numenius phaeopus Whimbrel Tetti-kokku WV Coast fairly common
Tringa stagnatilis Marsh sand piper Chatuppan WV N. Parur
T. nebularia Green shank Pachakkali WV Cherthala vaikkom
T. ochropus Greensand piper Kada kokku WV 1850m high range
T. hypoleucos Common sand piper Neerkata WV (Sep-May)
Gellinago nemoricola Wood snipe Chumtankata WV Waynad
Scolopax rusticola Wood cock Prakata WV High Range
Calidris minuta Little stint Kuruvikokku WV Coastal area
Hydroprogne caspia Caspian tern Kadakkakka WV Coastal area
Sterna bergii Large crested tern " WV Backwaters
Calandrella cinerea Short toed lark Koottakkuruvi WV Northern Kerala
Phylloscopus magnirostris Largebilled leaf warbler Podikkuruvi WV Evergreen forest
Erithacus brunneus Indian bluchat Neelattan WV Oct-Nov Evergreen
Motacilla flava Grey headed yellow wagtail Chaarthalayan/vaalukki WV Kuttanad
Motacilla cinerca Grey wagtail Vazhikulukki WV Vommon in hills
Carpodacus erythrinus Common Indian rosefinch Rosakkuruvi WV Maragur

WV= Winter visitor

Source: Birds of Kerala, Salim Ali
 

Only the indigenous people, the Kani tribe, knew of the anti-fatigue properties of the Arogyapacha plant (Trichopus zeylanicus ssp.travancoricus), which they ate during long treks in the hilly Western Ghats region. The Kani tribe is traditionally a nomadic community, who now lead a largely settled life in the forests of the Agasthyamalai hills of the Western Ghats in the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala. Tribal healers, known as Plathis, have knowledge on the medicinal properties of the flora and fauna of the region, and they passes this knowledge to the next generation orally.

In December 1987, a team of scientists undertook a botanical field survey into the forests of the Western Ghats of southern Kerala. Men from the local Kani tribe accompanied them. The leader, Dr. Pushpangadan, observed that the men ate some fruits which kept them energetic and agile; the team were later offered these fruits during arduous trekking and upon eating, experienced renewed energy and strength. Dr. Pushpangadan asked them about the source of the fruits, and after much persuasion and assurances that the information would not be misused, the Kanis finally showed him the fruits.

Preserving Local Knowledge

Convention on Biological Diversity aims to conserve and use biological diversity in a sustainable manner. It mandates that its signatories respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices of local or indigenous communities and encourage the equitable sharing of benefits.

One method that is being used to document the knowledge and skills of local communities related to biological resources is through Community Biodiversity Registers. The register process seeks to document the knowledge of conservation, as well as economic uses of biodiversity resources that rest with India's local communities. This is being developed by local communities in collaboration with high school and college students, and local NGOs. All information accumulated in the register can be used or shared only with the knowledge and consent of the local community. The community, when consenting to the access, can charge fees for access to the register and collection of biological resources. Decisions on how to disburse the funds are to be made through village community meetings. There is concern about the Biodiversity Registers in case the process has the effect of placing knowledge hitherto regarded as secret by communities in the public domain, and that once this is done it would open the way for corporate and research interests to freely access and use the local knowledge about the biodiversity resources

Harvesting

The licence to produce jeevani was granted to Arya Vaidya Pharmacy. A regular supply of the leaves of the plant was required. Scientific studies revealed that the medicinal properties of the plant are best manifested in plants growing in the natural habitat.

TBGRI suggested that as only leaves of the plant are needed, several harvests could be made from the perennial plant without actually destroying it. Therefore, in October 1997, a proposal to the Forest Department and Tribal Welfare Department stated that it was willing to pay Kanis seed money for cultivation of the plant, and would subsequently buy leaves harvested from these plants. This was not only a sustainable use of the natural resource, but the sale of leaves would also give the Kanis an extra source of income. TBGRI also assured the state department that no private parties would be involved in cultivation of the plant.

To facilitate this arrangement a pilot scheme for cultivation of the plant was carried out with support from the Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP) in areas surrounding the reserved forests from 1994 to 1996. Under this programme fifty families were given around Rs. 2000 ($40) each for cultivating the plant. TBGRI was to buy five tonnes of these leaves per month from the families and supply them to AVP for production of Jeevani. Through this scheme, roughly half the Kanis secured employment and were trained by TBGRI on various aspects of cultivation and harvesting of Arogyapacha to ensure that the plants are not over-harvested.

Lessons Learned

This experience has provided insight at multiple levels and is recognised as a world first in - how to commercialise use of natural resources in a sustainable manner; developing a valuable product and sharing benefits in a way that rewards the knowledge of indigenous people. It has been observed that:

  • The increase in demand could have led to excessive extraction of the biological resources, if the following measures were not taken:
    • Raising awareness among all stakeholders
    • Supporting and creating local institutions for sustainable extraction
    • Legitimising the property rights of communities over the use of biological resources and associated knowledge where were negotiated and defined at the local level.
  • The effective protection of intellectual property is a necessary condition for generation benefits, but it is not a sufficient condition for benefit sharing. Several additional measures are needed to supplement the role of intellectual property rights in benefit sharing over biological resources and traditional knowledge.
Ultimately, the initiative has empowered the Kanis to protect, preserve and maintain their knowledge, and the sustainable use of biological resources had resulted in benefiting the local and global community
 

Endemic Species

There are about 1272 species of endemic angiosperms out of 3800 species occurring in Kerala, which is 33.5% of its flora. Out of 5725 endemics in India, endemics of Kerala constitute 22.6% of Indian endemics. The endemic flora in Kerala is mainly palaeotropic in composition, which is a part of the peninsular Indian endemic flora of Gondwanaland origin. Though there are common elements, the characteristic endemic flora of Kerala and Sri Lanka was developed from a common stock, but isolated due to temporal or geographical barriers. The hill top flora of Nilgiris, Palani and Cardamom hills in peninsular India and Adam's Peak in Sri Lanka show similarities, which indicate that they are derived from a common stock. Three 'hot spots' of endemic centres in Kerala are: Agasthyamala, Anamalai- high ranges and Silent Valley- Wayanad.

There are about 189 endemic plant species reported from Agasthyamala and they occur in small populations over narrow ranges. The recent surveys have resulted in the discovery of 35 new species of plants from this small stretch of forests.

The endemic genera of Anamalai and High Ranges are Haplothismia, Pseudoglochidion and Utleria. The species which are critically endangered or probably extinct are Anaphalis barnesii, Begonia aliciae, Didymocarpus macrostachya, Habenaria flabelliformis, Impatiens anaimudica, I. johnii, I. macrocarpa, I. platyadena, I. verecunda, Ophiorrhiza barnesii, O. caudata, O. munnarensis and Sonerila nemakadensis.

The five endemic genera occurring in the Silent Valley- Wayanad region are: Chandrasekharania, Baeolepis, Kanjarum, Meteoromyrtus, and Silentvalleya.

 

Rare, Endangered and threatened species

Extinction or rarity of species may be due to environmental factors, ecological substitutes, biological factors, pathological causes and habitat destruction. The state of Kerala habitat destruction through conversion of forests into plantations and diversion of forests for non-forestry purpose such as hydel and irrigation projects took place to a great extent. . As a result the large chunk of forests became fragmented into isolated patches. Each such isolated patches act like an ecological island. Over exploitation of certain species (e.g. Paphiopedilum druryi) has also put them under threatened category, IUCN has estimated that about 10% of world’s vascular plants (20,000 to 25,000) are under different categories of threat.

Among the RET species reported from Kerala, Rubiaceae, and Fabaceae represents the maximum number of species (14 each) followed by Orchidaceae, (13), and Asclepiadaceae(11). Twenty three families are represented by single species (Table 1). Out of the 159 rare, endangered vulnerable and threatened species 70 are herbs, 23 are climbers, 8 epiphytic 15 shrubs and 43 trees. There are 64 rare, 22 threatened (vulnerable), 50 endangered and 7 extinct. Out of the 300 rare, endangered and threatened species of WG, 68 are in low elevation evergreen, 85 in medium elevation evergreen, 52 in high elevation evergreen and 32 in montane grasslands and the remaining are found in moist deciduous and dry deciduous habitat.

The major reasons for the vulnerability of the flora are habitat degradation, habitat alteration and unsustainable collection of NWFP species and for other purpose. The alteration of habitats such as grasslands (low, medium and high altitude ) for monoculture plantations, riparian ecosystems as reservoirs, low lying evergreen forests as agricultural land and homesteads has resulted in listing many species under extinct or vulnerable category.

RET species

S N. Species Family RET Status Endemic
1 Acranthera grandiflora Rubiaceae E Y
2 Actinodaphne bourneae Lauraceae E Y
3 Actinodaphne lanata Lauraceae E Y
4 Actinodaphne lawsonii Lauraceae R Y
5 Aspidopterys canarensis Malpighiaceae R Y
6 Anaphalis barnesii Asteraceae E Y
7 Anisochilus argenetus Lamiaceae V Y
8 Anisochilus wightii Lamiaceae E Y
9 Anhenry rotundifolia Orchidaceae E Y
10 Antistrophe serratifolia Myrsinaceae R Y
11 Aponogeton apendiculatus Apongetonaceae X  
12 Atuna travancorica Euphobiaceae X Y
13 Begonia aliciae Begoniaceae E Y
14 Begonia anamalayana Begoniaceae V Y
15 Begonia canarana Begoniaceae E Y
16 Begonia cordifolia Begoniaceae R Y
17 Begonia subpeltata Begoniaceae R  
18 Begonia trichocarpa Begoniaceae V Y
19 Bentinckia condapanna Areacaceae   Y
20 Buchanania barberi Anacardiaceae E Y
21 Bulbophyllum albidum Orchidaceae R Y
22 Bulbophyllum aureum Orchidaceae R Y
23 Campanula alphonsii Campanulaceae R Y
24 Capparis fusifera Capparaceae R Y
25 Capparis rheedei Capparaceae R Y
26 Cayratia pedata Vitaceae R Y
27 Cayratia roxburghii Vitaceae V Y
28 Ceropegia barnesii Ascepiadaceae E Y
29 Ceropegia beddomei Asclepiadaceae E Y
30 Ceropegia decaisneana Asclepiadaceae R  
31 Ceropegia metziana Asclepiadaceae R  
32 Ceropegia muculata Asclepiadaceae EN  
33 Ceropegia omissa Asclepiadaceae E Y
34 Ceropegia pusilla Asclepiadaceae R Y
35 Ceropegia spiralis Asclepiadaceae V  
36 Ceropegia thwaitesii Asclepiadaceae V  
37 Clematis bourdillonii Ranunculaceae V Y
38 Clematis theobromina Ranunculaceae R Y
39 Cleome burmannii Capparaceae X  
40 Coelogyne mossiae Orchidaceae V Y
41 Commelina indehiscens Commelinaceae R Y
42 Commelina wightii Commenlinaceae V Y
43 Corymborkis veratrifolia Orchidaceae R Y
44 Crolataria scabra Fabaceae R  
45 Crotalaria peduncularis Fabaceae R Y
46 Cyanotis cerifolia Comomelinaceae X  
47 Cyathea nilgirensis Cyatheaceae E Y
48 Cyclea fissicalyx Menispermaceae R Y
49 Cynometra beddomei Fabaceae X Y
50 Cynometra travancorica Fabaceae R Y
51 Desmos viridiflorus Annonaceae E Y
52 Dialium travancoricum Fabaceae X Y
53 Dictyospermum ovalifolium Commelinaceae R Y
54 Didymocarpus missionis Gesneriaceae R Y
55 Elaeocarpus munronii Elaeocarpaceae R Y
56 Elaeocarpus recurvatus Elaeocarpaceae R Y
57 Elaeocarpus venustus Elaeocarpaceae V Y
58 Elaphoglossum beddomei Elaphoglossaceae R Y
59 Elaphoglossum stigmatolepis Elaphoglossaceae V Y
60 Eria albiflora Orchidaceae R Y
61 Eriochrysis rangacharii Poaceae EX Y
62 Eugenia argentea Myrtaceae E /EX Y
63 Eugenia discifera Myrtaceae E Y
64 Euonymus angulatus Celastraceae E Y
65 Euonymus serratifolius Celastraceae E Y
66 Glycosmis macrocarpa Rutaceae R Y
67 Goniothalamus rhynchantherus Annonaceae R Y
68 Habenaria barnesii Orchidaceae R Y
69 Hedyotis beddomei Rubiaceae E Y
70 Hedyotis buxifolia Rubiaceae R Y
71 Hedyotis eualata Rubiaceae R Y
72 Hedyotis fruticosa Rubiaceae R  
73 Hedyotis ramarowii Rubiaceae V Y
74 Hedyotis swertioides Rubiaceae R Y
75 Helichrysum perlanigerum Asteraceae R Y
76 Hugonia belli Linaceae R Y
77 Humboldtia decurrens Fabaceae R Y
78 Humboldtia bourdilloni Fabaceae E Y
79 Humboldtia laurifolia Fabaceae E Y
80 Humboldtia unijuga var. unijuga Fabaceae E Y
81 Hydnocarpus macrocarpa Flacourtiaceae E Y
82 Hydrocotyle conferta Apiaceae R Y
83 Ilex gradneriana Aquifoliaceae E /EX Y
84 Impatiens neo-barnesii Balsaminaceae E Y
85 Impatiens nilgirica Balsaminaceae E Y
86 Impatiens anaimudica Balsaminaceae R Y
87 Impatiens johini Balsaminaceae E /EX Y
88 Impatiens macrocarpa Balsaminaceae E /EX Y
89 Impatiens munnarensis Balsaminaceae E /EX Y
90 Impatiens pandata Balsaminaceae R Y
91 Inga cynometroides Fabaceae X Y
92 Ipsea malabarica Orchidaceae E Y
93 Isachne fischeri Poaceae R  
94 Isonandra stocksii Sapotaceae V  
95 Isonandra villosa Sapotaceae X  
96 Kalanchoe olivacea Crassulaceae R Y
97 Limnopoa meeboldii Poaceae V Y
98 Lindsea malabarica Lindsaeaceae E Y
99 Liparis biloba Orchidaceae V Y
100 Mackenziea caudate Acanthaceae R Y
101 Madhuca bourdillonii Sapotaceae EX Y
102 Melicope indica Rutaceae V Y
103 Memecylon flavescens Melastomataceae E Y
104 Memecylon sisparense Melastomataceae X Y
105 Meteoromyrtus wynadensis Myrtaceae E Y
106 Miliusa nilagrica Annonaceae V Y
107 Murdannia juncoides Commelinaceae R Y
108 Murdannia lanceolata Commelinaceae V Y
109 Nothopegia aureo-fluva Anacaridiaceae E Y
110 Oberonia brachyphylla Orchidaceae R Y
111 Ochreinauclea mission is Rubiaceae V Y
112 Ophiorrhiza barnesii Rubiaceae EX Y
113 Ophiorrhiza brunonis Rubiaceae EX  
114 Ophiorrhiza incarnata Rubiaceae E Y
115 Ophiorrhiza caudate Rubiaceae EX Y
116 Ophiorrhiza radicans Rubiaceae EX  
117 Orophea uniflora Annonaceae R Y
118 Palaquium bourdillonii Sapotaceae X Y
119 Paphiopedilum druryi Orchidaceae E Y
120 Pavetta oblanceolata Rubiaceae X  
121 Peucedanum anamallayense Apiaceae R Y
122 Phaeanthus malabaricus Annonaceae V Y
123 Piper barberi Piperaceae R Y
124 Pogostemon atropurpureus Lamiaceae R Y
125 Pogostemon nilagiricus Lamiaceae E Y
126 Pogostemon paludosus Lamiaceae E Y
127 Pogostemon travancoricus Lamiaceae R Y
128 Polyalthia rufescens Annonaceae R Y
129 Popowia beddomeana Annonaceae R Y
130 Pronephrium thwaitesii Thelypteridaceae V  
131 Pseudocyclosorous gamblei Thelypteridaceae E Y
132 Pseudocyclosorous griseus Thelypteridaceae E Y
133 Pseudoglochidion anamalayanum Euphorbiaceae    
134 Pterospermum reticulatum Sterculiaceae R Y
135 Rhynchospora submarginata Cyperaceae X Y
136 Sageraea grandiflora Annonaceae E Y
137 Salacia malabarica Celastraceae E Y
138 Syzygium bourdillonii Myrtaceae E Y
139 Syzygium palghatense Myrtaceae E Y
140 Syzygium travancoricum Myrtaceae E Y
141 Tephrosia barberi Fabaceae R Y
142 Tephrosia wynaadensis Fabaceae R Y
143 Thottea barberi Aristolochiaceae V Y
144 Toxocarpus beddomei Asclepiadaceae R Y
145 Toxocarpus palghatensis Asclepiadaceae V Y
146 Utleria salicifolia Periplocaceae E Y
147 Vanasushava pedata Apiaceae R Y
148 Vanilla wightiana Orchidaceae R Y
149 Vateria macrocarpa Dipterocarpaceae R Y
150 Vernonia multibracteata Asteraceae E Y
151 Vernonia recurva Asteraceae E Y
152 Willisia selaginoides Podostemaceae R Y

Note: E-endangered; EX-extinct, X-undetermined; R-rare; V-vulnerable; Y-present

ENDANGERED FOREST SPECIES IN KERALA

Sl. No. Species Family Habit
1. Acampe congesta Orchidaceae Herbs
2. Adenosma malabaricum Scrophulariaceae Herbs
3. Anaphalis barnesii Compositae Herbs
4. Arisaema attenuatum Araceae Herbs
5. Arisaema auriculata Araceae Herbs
6. Arisaema peltatum Araceae Herbs
7. Hydnocarepus macrocarpa Flacourtiaceae Trees
8. Atuna travancorica Rosaceae Trees
9. Bombax scopulorum Bombacaceae Trees
10. Buchanania barberi Anacardiaceae Trees
11. Buchanania lanceolata Anacardiaceae Trees
12. Bulbophyllum aureum Orchidaceae Herbs
13. Calamus travancoricus Arecaceae Shrubs
14. Ceropegia beddomei Asclepiadaceae Climbers
15. Cirrhopetalum avreum Orchidaceae Herbs
16. Clematis bourdillonni Ranunculaceae Climbers
17. Colubrinma travancorica Rhamnaceae Shrubs
18. Cyclea fissicalyx Menispermaceae Climbers
19. Cynometra beddomei Fabaceae Trees
20. Cynometra travancorica Fabaceae Trees
21. Dalbergia beddomei Fabaceae Lianas
22. Dialium travancoricum Fabaceae Trees
23. Didymocarpus macrostachya Gesneriaceae Herbs
24. Dysoxylum beddomei Meliaceae Trees
25. Dysoxylum ficiforme Meliaceae Trees
26. Eugenia argentea Myrtaceae Trees
27. Eugenia discifera Myrtaceae Trees
28. Garcinia imberti Guttiferae Trees
29. Haplothismia exannulata Burmanniaceae Herbs
30. Hedyotis beddomei Rubiaceae Herbs
31. Hedyotis bourdillonii Rubiaceae Herbs
32. Hedyotis wynaadensis Rubiaceae Herbs
33. Hyalisma janthina Triuridaceae Herbs
34. Hydrobryum johnsonii Podostemaceae Herbs
35. Cinnamomum travancoricum Lauraceae Trees
36. Impatiens aliciae Balsaminaceae Herbs
37. Impatiens anaimudica Balsaminaceae Herbs
38. Impatiens cochinica Balsaminaceae Herbs
39. Impatiens coelotropis Balsaminaceae Herbs
40. Impatiens concinna Balsaminaceae Herbs
41. Impatiens johnii Balsaminaceae Herbs
42. Impatiens leptura Balsaminaceae Herbs
43. Impatiens macrocarpa Balsaminaceae Herbs
44. Impatiens munnarensis Balsaminaceae Herbs
45. Impatiens pandata Balsaminaceae Herbs
46. Impatiens platyadena Balsaminaceae Herbs
47. Impatiens pallidiflora Balsaminaceae Herbs
48. Impatiens rivulicola Balsaminaceae Herbs
49. Impatiens verecunda Balsaminaceae Herbs
50. Inga cynometroides Fabaceae Tree
51. Ipsea malabarica Orchidaceae Herbs
52. Isachne fischeri Gramineae Herbs
53. Isachne setosa Gramineae Herbs
54. Ixora johnsonii Rubiaceae Herbs
55. Jambosa bourdillonii Myrtaceae Trees
56. Janakia arayalpathra Periplocaceae Herbs
57. Limnopoa meeboldii Gramineae Herbs
58. Litsea travancorica Lauraceae Trees
59. Loesnerinella bourdilonii Celastraceae Climber
60. Madhuca bourdillonii Sapotaceae Trees
61. Meteoromyrtus wynaadensis Myrtaceae Trees
62. Morinda reticulata Rubiaceae Climber
63. Nilgirianthus asper Acanthaceae Shrubs
64. Nilgirianthus barbatus Acanthaceae Shrubs
65. Nilgirianthus beddomei Acanthaceae Shrubs
66. Nilgirianthus ciliatus Acanthaceae Shrubs
67. Nilgirianthus decurrens Acanthaceae Herbs
68. Nilgirianthus foliosus Acanthaceae Herbs
69. Nilgirianthus lupulinus Acanthaceae Herbs
70. Nilgirianthus neilgherrensis Acanthaceae Herbs
71. Nilgirianthus perrottetianus Acanthaceae Herbs
72. Nilgirianthus punctatus Acanthaceae Herbs
73. Nilgirianthus urceolaris Acanthaceae Herbs
74. Ochlandra beddomei Bambusaceae Trees
75. Ochreinauclea missionis Rubiaceae Trees
76. Oianthus beddomei Asclepiadaceae Twiners
77. Ophiorrhiza barnesii Rubiaceae Herbs
78. Ophiorrhiza candata Rubiaceae Herbs
79. Ophiorrhiza incarnata Rubiaceae Herbs
80. Ophiorrhiza munnarensis Rubiaceae Herbs
81. Orophea uniflora Annonaceae Shrub
82. Otonephelium stipulaceum Sapindaceae Trees
83. Palaquium bourdillonii Sapotaceae Trees
84. Paphiopedilum druryi Orchidaceae Herbs
85. Phaenanthus malabaricus Annonaceae Trees
86. Phlebophyllum lawsonii Acanthaceae Shrubs
87. Plectronia pergracilis Rubiaceae Shrubs
88. Poeciloneuron indicum Bonnetiaceae Trees
89. Poeciloneuron pauciflorum Bonnetiaceae Trees
90. Pogostemon travancoricus Labiatae Herbs
91. Polyalthia rufescens Annonaceae Trees
92. Pterospermum reticulatum Sterculiaceae Trees
93. Sageraea grandiflora Annonaceae Trees
94. Schefflera bourdillonii Araliaceae Climbers
95. Silentvalleya nairii Gramineae Herbs
96. Smithia venkobarowii Fabaceae Shrubs
97. Sonerila nemakadensis Melastomataceae Herbs
98. Strobilanthes dupenii Acanthaceae Herbs
99. Syzygium bourdillonii Myrtaceae Trees
100. Syzygium palghatense Myrtaceae Trees
101. Syzygium travancorcum Myrtaceae Trees
102. Taeniophyllum scaberulum Orchidaceae Herbs
101. Tephrosia wynaadensis Fabaceae Herbs
102. Toxocarpus palghatensis Asclepiadaceae Herbs
103. Vanilla wightiana Orchidaceae Herbs
105. Vernonia anaimudica Compositae Herbs
106. Vernonia heynei Compositae Herbs
107. Vernonia multibracteata Compositae Herbs
 

Orchids

Among the various floristic compositions orchids form one of the major groups found in all the vegetational types from western coastal region to mountains. The majority of orchids are found in the forests and each forest type has its own composition of orchid flora. High rainfall and the relatively cool climate coupled with bright sunshine contribute ideal habitat for the growth of epiphytic orchids. The profuse growth of moss on trees is well suited to the growth of small epiphytic orchids.

Altogether 267 species, 3 subspecies and 2 varieties in 72 genera are reported from Western Ghats. Among them 130 species, 2 subspecies and 2 varieties are endemics to India. Of these, 72 species, 2 subspecies and 2 varieties are endemic to Western Ghats. Nineteen taxa are extremely rare and endangered.

The commonly seen epiphytic orchids are Sirhookera latifolia, S. lanceolata, Dendrobium heyneanum, D.heterocarpum, Eria reticosa, Trias stocksii, Bulbophyllum,Neelgherrense. The terrestrial orchids are mostly Calanthe masuca, Disperis neilgherrensis, Habenaria crinifera, Epipogium roseum, Anoectochilus, etc. Acampe praemorsa is the most common and widely distributed species in the plains. Vanda spathulata though restricted is confined to trees of the sea coast. Habenaria diphylla and H. plantaginea prefer open scrub jungle

Some of the orchids presumably extinct are Acampe congesta, A. rigida, and Taeniophyllum scaberulum. The genus Vanilla with 3 species is also becoming rare and adequate conservation steps are to be taken to save them. Some of the rare and endangered orchids are Aenhenrya rotundifolias, Brachycorythis wightii, Bulbophyllum nodosum, Coelogyne mossiae, Ipsea malabarica, Liparis beddomei, Paphiopedilum druryi and Vanda wightii.


ORCHIDS, ANTHURIUMS AND INDOOR PLANTS

Kerala is blessed with tropical and subtropical climate because of its elevation from the sea level to the Western Ghats (over 2000m). Availability of good rainfall and high humidity enables it to grow a number of tropical and sub-tropical flowers. However, our contribution to flower industry is almost negligible. The early nineties witnessed an interest in the commercial cultivation of flowers of orchid and anthurium in the State. Availability of sunshine, good rainfall, high relative humidity, educated workforce, and adequate national and international air communication, the State possesses all the potentialities for taking up large scale cultivation on a commercial basis.

Potential for Floriculture in Kerala

  1. The State can be divided into following zones for ornamental plants cultivation.
  2. Palakkad district (low rainfall, low humidity, cheap labour) suitable for jasmine, crossandra, marigold.
  3. Hill zone unto 1000 meters above msl suitable for anthurium, rose, carnation, gladiolus, gerbera, foliage plants.
  4. Hill zone, 1000-2000 metres above msl (in polyhouse for certain crops) suitable for Cymbidium orchid, gladiolus, bird of paradise.
  5. Other areas-coastal and midland suitable for orchid, anthurium, foliage plants.

Orchid



Among cut flowers orchids occupy a prime position, because of their long spikes, many coloured and shaped flowers and long life. The family of orchid, Orchidaceae, consists of 600-800 genera and 30,000-35,000 species. Ever since the creation of the first hybrid in1956, over a lakh hybrids have been produced and continued to be produced, making available huge quantities of newer varieties. The commercial orchids are both terrestrial and epiphytic, but most of them are epiphytic. Though both monopodial (having single stemmed growth) and sympodial (having multi stemmed growth) are equally used in commercial cultivation, sympodial types (Cymbidium, Dendrobium etc) rank higher in the export market.

DENDROBIUM (SONIA)

The sympodial genera suitable for Kerala, are Cymbidium (at high altitudes), Oncidium and Cattleya, and the monopodial genera are Vanda, Arachnis and Phalaenopsis. Intergeneric monopodial hybrids like Aranda (A, rachnis x Vanda), Ascocenda (Ascocentrum x Vanda), Mokara (Arachnis, Ascocentrum, Vanda) also perform well.

Suitable Dendrobium hybrids for Kerala

The genus Dendrobium consists of large number of species (about 1500). Some of the popular varieties in Kerala are Sonia 17, Sonia 17 Mutant, Sonia 28 Mutant, Hieng Beauty, Renappa, Dorine White, Emma White, Kasem White,, Kasem Gold and Banyat Pink.

Environment

Since the commercial orchids of Kerala are epiphytic, soil condition is not a problem; only water quality is important. Availability of high humidity and shade regulation are also important factors for the growth and production.

SONARILA SPECIES

Orchids are grown from seeds, tissue cultured plants and by conventional vegetative propagation. Vegetative propagation is easier to carry out, but slower. Monopodial orchids like Vanda and Arachnis can be propagated by top cuttings. In genera such as Phalaenopsis and Phaius, flower stalks give rise to plants. Sympodial orchids like Dendrobium, Cattleyas and Cymbidium are propagated by division. The shoots growing on the plants (which are called 'Keikis') and back bulbs (spent canes) can also be used as propagules. In tissue culture seeds, axillary buds, apical buds, leaf segments and inflorescence axes are used. The common media used for tissue culture are MS, Vacin and Went and Knudson C. Earthen pots, baskets, tree fern blocks, wooden trays and whole husk of coconut are the common containers used for planting orchids. Sufficient drainage is essential. For this, holes are to be provided in the containers. The medium used for growing orchids should allow good aeration and drainage. It should not absorb much water and degenerate easily.

Propagation

Broken bricks, gravel, tile bits, charcoal, coconut husk bits, tree fern etc. are some of the components of the media used for growing epiphytic orchids. The components are washed thoroughly before filling in pots. For terrestrial orchids, a mixture of humus, leaf mould, dried manure, chopped fern fibre and spaghnum moss will suffice.

Cultural details

Impatiens phoenicea

Kerala offers salubrious natural conditions for luxuriant growth and development of orchids. However, better attention in planting, regulation of shade, irrigation, nutrition, plant protection and post harvest handling is necessary to produce quality flowers.Planting In sympodial orchids, the propagule is placed near the edge of the container the growing point facing the centre. The monopodial orchid is placed at the centre. The potting materials are filled around the plant and the plant is fixed tightly. The whole plant with pot may be dipped in water after planting and thereafter watered judiciously.

Impatiens coelotropis

Shade regulation:

The monopodial types such as Vanda, Arachnis and Aranda prefer open conditions. Dendrobiums, on the other hand require partial shade. A high pressure, low volume irrigation, such as mist irrigation, or fogging (microsprinkler) would be ideal.

Nutrition:

Orchids require both major and minor nutrients. A low concentration of this is applied frequently as whole plant spray. Two sprays per week is generally enough. Micronutrients help in improving the quality and need to be applied once a month. The chemical fertilizers are to be properly balanced with organic manures like cowdung, cow urine, ground-nut oil cake Neem oil cake etc. They should be diluted before application.

Ranunculus reniformis

Plant protection

The common insects which attack orchids are beetle, stem borer, mites, snails and slugs. Non-insect pests like rats, grasshoppers and cockroaches are also sometimes seen. Fungal diseases too are common. Proper field sanitation and use of the correct type and dose of chemicals are used to manage them.

Harvesting and post-harvest handling

The spikes are harvested when a few buds at the top remain un-open. The spikes are cut with a small stalk. The cut end is dipped in a fungicide solution and then covered with a wet cotton swab and properly tied using a rubber band. They are then packed in carton of appropriate sizes and having proper ventilation holes. The spikes are inserted in polythene covers and packed loosely in the cartons.

Impatiens parasitica

Homestead cultivation

At homestead level, cultivation of orchid helps to utilize free time of family members and provide supplementary income. In urban areas, house terraces can be utilised for this. A commercially viable unit may have a minimum of 500 plants. Plants belonging to sympodial group (preferably, Dendrobium hybrids) are ideal. The net annual profit from second year onwards would be Rs. 2500-3500. Disposal of flowers is a problem to reckon with.

Lysimachia deltoids

Commercial cultivation

There is no upper limit to expanding cultivation except for ensuring proper arrangements for marketing of flowers. The other factors that need to be considered are the entrepreneurial ability and availability of finance.

Desmodium rufescens

Marketing and economics

At present, almost all the flowers produced in the State are fed to internal markets. Agencies such as co-operative societies and traders arrange to collect the spikes from production points. It is estimated that a one ha size commercial orchid garden will cost Rupees one core in the first year, and thereafter about Rs. 5 lakhs from the second year. Optimally, this may net Rs. 24 lakhs in the first year, Rs. 72 lakhs in the second year, Rs. 96 lakhs in the third year and Rs. 144 lakhs annually thereafter.

Anthuriums

Habenaria perrottetiana

Anthuriums are tropical plants grown for their showy cut flowers and their attractive foliage. They are very popular with flower arrangers because of the bold effect, bright colour and long keeping quality. The genus Anthurium belonging to the family Araceae, includes over 500 species reported. Four species are more popular; A. andreanum (for cut flowers), A. scherzerianum (as potted plants), A. crystallinum (for foliage) and A. grande (for variegated foliage). The other known species include A. androphyoides, A. brownii, A. clarinervium, A. veitchii, A. pedatoradiatum, A. warocquianum and A. pittieri. The genus is a native of tropical America. The major growing countries are Hawaii (USA), Mauritius and Holland.

A. andreanum is one of the most important cut flowers of the world. The 'flower' consists of a colourful modified leaf called the spathe and hundreds of small spirally arranged bisexual flowers on a pencil-like structure called the spadix, arising from the base of the spathe. It is commonly known as 'candle'. Anthurium blooms throughout the year, one bloom arising from the axil of every leaf. It can be cultivated' on the ground, in beds, or in pots. Kerala possesses ideal geophysical and climatic conditions for its cultivation.

Varieties

For internal market, a mixture of many types and colours may not pose much problem, but for exports uniformity in all respects is required for each package.

A good variety should have bright, clear coloured, showy heart shaped spathe with plenty of blisters and symmetrical overlapping of basal lobes. The spadix should be reclining to the spathe at less than 30 and shorter in length than the spathe. An erect flower stem having about five times length of the spathe is considered to be a good character. The plant should be compact and produce suckers profusely. Some of the important red varieties are Ozaki, Kozohara and Kaumana from Hawaii and Can Can, Avo Rosette, Avonette, Fla Red, Fla King and Tropical from Holland. Nitta, Sunburst, Flarange, Avogino and Mauritius Orange are some of the orange varieties. Manoa Mist, Uniwai, Acropolis, Lima White, Haga White, Uranus and Fla-exotic are the common white varieties. Abe Pink, Blush, Marian Seefurth and Avo Anneke are the important pink varieties and Fantasia (cream with pink veins), Madonna (cream obake), Lambada (white-green obake), Farao (bright orange in green lans) some of the obake types.

Cultural requirements

Anthurium can be cultivated conveniently in earthern pots of 25-30 cm diameter. These pots should preferably have two holes at the bottom for proper drainage of water.

Lysimachia deltoids

Media

Highly organic, well aerated medium with good water retention capacity and drainage is used for growing anthurium. The commonly used media are sugarcane bagasse, wood shavings, leaf mould, coarse sand, small brick pieces, neem cake, coir pith compost, charcoal, coconut husk pieces, etc. They should be able to provide firm anchor to the roots, and choice depends on cost and availability. Young plants require repotting every year, while adult ones in every 2-3 years.

Anthurium can be grown as a ground plant also; in fact, in large scale growing, this is the only way. Land having gentle slope is more suitable as this avoids stagnation. Planting is done on raised beds using the same potting media as detailed above. The planting distance is 45 cm x 45 cm, allowing roughly 29,640 plants/ha The plant can be pruned to retain just four leaves without any adverse effect on flower production or quality.

Environments Anthuriums are shade loving plants, the optimum being 75-80% shade. However, this varies with cultivar, age and climate. The best climate is 25-28°C during days 18-20"C during nights and about 80% relative humidity.

Propagation

The most common method of propagation is by stem cuttings. Top portion of the stem with a few roots is removed and planted. The remaining part of the stem develops side shoots (suckers). By repeating this, additional plants can be obtained. But this propagation method is slow. Tissue culture provides a more rapid method of multiplication. When suckers grow to 4-5 leaf stage with 2-3 good roots, they are separated and planted.

Growing plants from seeds is a lengthy process. The seeds germinate within 6-8 days and are ready for transplanting after 4-6 months. Such plants take about two years to bloom. The plants developed from seeds also show some variability.The plants are watered twice daily during summer months. Mist or overhead sprinkler irrigation is the best. Nutrition It is better to apply the nutrients in smaller dose at frequent intervals than giving larger doses at longer intervals. Manurial applications in soil are given every alternate month. A combination of organic manure such as farm yard manure with about 2 g of 17: 17: 17:2 of the NPK and Mg/plant once or twice a month is applied by many growers. For plants growing in pots 5g complex fertilizer dissolved in 500 ml water is given to the medium once in two months. Foliar spray of 0.5-1.0% of 17: 17: 17 complex could also be given to the plants at biweekly intervals. Deficiency of calcium can cause fading of the spathe colour and so 5 g Ca/plant per month is recommended.

Harvesting, grading and packing

The flowers are harvested after the spathe is completely unfolded. About 8-12 flowers plant are obtained annually. They are cut with long stalks when about two-thirds of the flowers in the spadix are open. If the flowers are to be transported to long distances, a water soaked cotton may be kept at the cut end of the stalk.

Dendrobium anamalayanum

Plant protection

Some of the serious diseases are bacterial blight, leaf spot, anthracnose, root rot and damping off. Yellowing of the plants is the main symptom of blight. The disease is favored by warm and wet weather. To control the disease, cut and remove the diseased portion and spray streptocycline 200 mg/l. Anthracnose is a fungal disease in which the flowers rot. Mancozeb 0.2% spray can control the disease. This can control leaf spot disease also. Root rot is another major problem in anthurium. Improper aeration leads to this disease. Pests like scales, mealy bugs, thrips and mites are also common. Appropriate plant protection measures should be taken against them.

Potential of anthurium cultivation in Kerala

Cultivation of anthurium in homesteads as a hobby or for commercial purposes is feasible in Kerala as the climatic and soil conditions are congenial for its development. The awareness about the export potential of anthurium is fast increasing in the State.

Marketing systems and export prospects

Most of small scale growers in the State presently depend on private merchants or growers' societies for marketing their produce. The price realized is Rs. 5-20/flower. Harvesting is done once a week, usually. In the International market red anthuriums are in greatest demand. In the Dutch auction in 1995, the demand for the various colours were; red (40.3%), orange (11.7%), pink (15.3%), salmon (4.7%), white (12.8%), cream (2.9%), obakes (8.1%), others (4.2%). Countries like Japan, USA, UK, Germany, Holland and Italy are the major buyers.

Economics and cultivation

About 1000 plants can be maintained in about 150 sq.m land. The cost of establishing such a unit comes to about Rs. one lakh. About 500 flowers can be expected in a month. At the prevailing market prices, this can get an annual income of Rs. 48,000/-. The expenditure for proper maintenance may come to about Rs. 18,000/-. Thus realizing a net profit of Rs. 30,000/-. The income from the sale of planting material will be additional, to this. About 60,000 plants can be grown per hectare. Even if one plant produces only 5 spikes annually, and it is sold at Rs. 5/-per spike, the grower can fetch Rs. 1.5, million annually. The net profit can come to about Rs. 1.0 million per annum.The plants that have the ability to grow under very low levels of light are termed as indoor plants. Urbanization, has led to the trend of indoor gardening all over the world. There is now an increasing demand for various foliage plants for landscaping institutions, indoor decorations etc.

Plants suitable for interior decoration

Innumerable species and Varieties are available for use as indoor plants. Plants are chosen according to one's taste and environment. The ideal is small, slow growing and adaptable to changes of location and lighting.

Cultural practices

Satyrium nepalense

Containers Earthenware pots are most commonly used for growing indoor plants. Plastic pots, glazed clay and china pots, brass or copper containers etc. are also used. Large plants can be grown in cement or wooden planters.

Growing medium Natural soil is seldom used alone. It is mixed with amendments to provide desired physical characteristics. Organic materials like sphagnum moss, sawdust, coir dust, shredded bark, wood shavings or leaf mould, or inorganic aggregates such as sand, vermiculite, peat or prelate are used for this. Brick pieces, broken tiles, coconut husk pieces and charcoal are used for planting orchids, cacti, etc. Charcoal helps to prevent to some extent stagnation of water at the roots. It also prevents the plant from suffering from drought. Light intensity is the limiting factor in growing plants indoors. The minimum light intensity for maintenance of a foliage plant is that which permits the plant to function at a level slightly exceeding the compensation point at which photosynthesis is equal to respiration.The demand for light varies from plant to plant. For instance, Hedera helix a climbing house plant, thrives well in a relatively dark corner, but Sansevieria trifasciata (mother - in -law's tongue) requires a good amount of light. Dark corners of rooms which need decoration with house plants should be sufficiently lit using artificial illumination. The ideal illumination is a combination of red and blue rays. Plants exposed to much light will turn yellow and plants receiving insufficient light will grow lanky. So also, temperature and relative humidity play important roles in the health of indoor plants.

List of plants

Common name

Scientific name

Family

1.

Maiden hair fern

Adiantum sp.

Polypodiaceae

2.

Aglaonema/Evergreens

Aglaonema spp.

Araceae

3.

Variegated/Pineapple

Ananas bracteatus

Bromeliaceae

4.

Anthuriums

Anthurium spp.

Araceae

5.

Aralia

Aralia elegantissima

Araliaceae

6.

Asparagus

Asparagus spp.

Liliaceae

7.

Begonia

Begonia spp

Begoniaceae

8.

Calathea

Calathea spp.

Marantaceae

9.

Spider plant

Chlorophytum
comosum

Liliaceae

10.

Chosothemis
pulchella

Gesneriaceae

11.

Ctenanthe spp.

Marantaceae

12.

Earth stars

Cryptanthus sp.

Bromeliaceae

13.

Umbrella plant

Cyperus alternifolius

Cyperaceae

14.

Dumb cane

Dieffenbachia spp.

Araceae

15.

Dracaena

Dracaena spp.

Liliaceae

16.

Flame violet

Episcia cupriata

Gesneriaceae

17.

Money plant/
Golden pothos

Epipremmum aureum

Araceae

18

Euonymus japonica

Celastraceae

19

Excoecaria bicolour

Euphorbiaceae

20

Weeping Fig

Ficus benjamina

Moraceae

21.

Indian rubber tree

Ficus elastica

Moraceae

22.

Fiddle leaf tree

Ficus lyrata

Moraceae

23.

Nerve plant

Fittonia spp.

Acanthaceae

24.

Velvet creeper

Gynura aurantiaca

Asteraceae

25.

Leea coccinea

Leeaceae

26.

Split leaf philodendron

Monstera deliciosa

Araceae

27.

Finger nailed
bromeliad

Neoregelia carolinae

Bromeliaceae

28.

Ferns

Nephrolepis spp.

Polipodiaceae

29.

Peperomia

Peperomia spp.

Piperaceae

30.

Philodendron

Philodendron spp.

Araceae

31.

Aluminium plant

Pilea cadierei

Urticaceae

32.

Staghorn fern

Platycerum bifurcatum

33.

Variegated
balfour aralia

Polyscias balfouriana

Araliaceae

34.

Snake plant

Sansevieria spp.

Liliaceae

35.

Velvet pothos

Scindapsus aureus

Araceae

36.

Umbrella tree

Schefflera arboricola

Araliaceae

37.

White flag/
Peace lily

Spathiphyllum spp.

Amceae

38.

Nephytis

Syngonium podophyIlum

Araceae

39.

Bat flower or Cat's whiskers

Tacca chantrieri

 

40.

Wandering Jew

Zebrina pendula

Commelinaceae

Repotting:- When potted plants have grown more than one season or year the roots become a tangled mass and exhaust all the nutrients in the soil. At this stage, re-potting is done. Pruning House plants may sometimes become too big in growth. Pruning can prevent or remedy such conditions. Pruning also stimulates new shoots to emerge from the dormant growth buds closest to the cut point. Two methods are practiced-pinching and cutting back.

In order to control the growth of plants, root trimming is necessary. Remove l/3rd of the roots, then remove l/4th - I/3rd of the shoot also. Remove branches to permit opening up the top of the plant, to allow air circulation. Keep root-pruned plants cool and well watered for 2-3 weeks after pruning Repot in fresh soil in a similar size container. The plants should be watered as necessary. They should be checked daily to see if they need water.

Double potting:- This is practiced in moisture loving plants. Place the container in which the plant is growing in a larger container and fill the interspace with sphagnum moss. Keep the sphagnum moss moist. Double potting permits constant moisture without saturating the plant. The danger of over watering is reduced because the sphagnum moss draws excess moisture through the walls of the inner pot away from the roots of the plant.

Nutrition:- Indoor plants are usually fertilized with a mixture composed of N,P and K. Trace elements are applied only according to necessity. Some fertilizers are applied as top dressing or mixed with the medium during preparation. Liquid solutions of fertilizers are the most convenient to use. The usual method is to prepare the solution in a watering can and apply sufficient volumes to the moist medium. Correct fertilizing of container plants consists of keeping them alive and well, but not allowing them to grow too rapidly.

Grooming Indoor plants are displayed on areas where people are likely to spend a lot of their time. Hence such areas should look their best. Remove old leaves and spent flowers regularly Trim disproportionately long branches. Wipe the foliage periodically with a damp sponge if the plant looks dull and dusty Turn back plants regularly to keep them symmetrical and sturdy A layer of decorative mulch in the pot also will enhance the appearance of indoor plants.

Support and training Non climbing plants with long, slender stems need support. The simplest method of supporting such plants is to tie them to a thin stake or a split bamboo piece inserted in the centre of the pot. For better support use up to three stakes spaced equally around the edge of the pot. Pass the twine around them. Do not tie the stems tightly.

The climbing growth (eg. ivies) can be spiraled around different stakes. Some plants like hederas, climbing philodendrons and syngoniums produce aerial roots that grip supportive objects like tree trunk. Plants like setcreaseas, tradescantias and zebrinas that are trailers but not climbers, look attractive when trained on supports such as small trellis or wire hoops.

Problems

Various problems are encountered when growing plants indoors. It may be caused by environmental and cultural factors, pests, diseases or combinations. Adequate steps need to be taken to keep them in constant check.

Prospects

Culture of indoor plants in the tropics is a recent phenomenon resulting from urbanization and living in high-rise buildings and flats. Much R and D work requires to be done to identify suitable species and varieties and to develop appropriate cultural condition. Since the urbanization trends will only intensify in future, the scope and demand for indoor plants will only increase in the coming decades.

Orchids of Kerala forests having floricultural potential

Species

Status

Locality

Flowering season

Flower size (cm)

Acanthephippium bicolor

rare

Agasthyamalai,
Munnar,
Silent Valley
Wayanad

March-April (yellowishbrown)

3-3.5

Aerides crispum

rare

Munnar,
Silent Valley
Wayanad

May-June
(pinkishwhite)

2.0

Aerides maculosum

rare

 

Agasthyamalai,
Silent Valley

May-June
(pinkish violet)

2.0

Anoectochilus elatus

rare

Silent Valley

December-February
(pink & white)

1.5

Arundina graminifolia

rare

Ponmudi,
Silent Valley
Agasthyamalai

April-May
(pink)

 

3.5 - 4.0

 

Calanthe rnasuca

not common

Agasthyamalai
Silent Valley
Munnar

Throughout the year(white or pink)

2.5 - 4.5

C. triplicata

rare

Munnar

May-July (white)

2.5

Coelogyne mossiae

rare

Munnar

August-September.
(white & brown)

3.5

Cymbidium ensifolium

common

Agasthyamalai,
Silent Valley

..

..

Dendrobium heterocarpum

rare

Agasthyamalai,
Silent Valley,
Munnar

December-February
(yellowish brown)

3.0

Dendrobium aqueum

rare

 

Silent Valley,
Wayanad

April - May
(white)

3.0

 

Dendrobium jerdonianum

rare

Thirunelli,
Coorg

March-April
(yellow)

2.0

Eulophia cullenii

rare

Kallar

February-April
(yellow)

4.0

Habenaria barnesii

very rare

 

Munnar

August
September
(greenish yellow)

2.0

Paphiopedilum druryi

endangered

 

Agasthyamalai

January-March
(yellow)

4.0

 

Vanda spathulata

rare

Kollencode

July-August.
(yellow)

5.0

 
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